Evolution and Ecology Review 2012

 

True/False

Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false.

 

____    1.   Charles Darwin came up with the theory of evolution.

 

____    2.   Organisms that capture the energy of sunlight to make food are called producers.

 

____    3.   Organisms that capture the energy of sunlight to make food are called consumers.

 

____    4.   All plants are eukaryotes that contain many cells.

 

____    5.   During photosynthesis, carbon dioxide and water combine to produce sugar and oxygen.

 

____    6.   The sex cells produced by meiosis have twice the number of chromosomes as the parent cells

 

Multiple Choice

Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 

____    7.   Which of these consumers is an herbivore?

a.

lion

b.

deer

c.

spider

d.

snake

 

 

____    8.   The first organism in a food chain is always a(n)

a.

consumer.

b.

herbivore.

c.

carnivore.

d.

producer.

 

 

____    9.   In an energy pyramid, which level has the most available energy?

a.

producer level

b.

first-level consumer level

c.

second-level consumer level

d.

third-level consumer level

 

 

____  10.   An organism that can make its own food is called a

a.

consumer.

b.

decomposer.

c.

producer.

d.

scavenger.

 

 

____  11.   In which process do molecules of liquid water absorb energy and change into the gas state?

a.

condensation

b.

precipitation

c.

evaporation

d.

recycling

 

 

____  12.   Which of these is NOT an example of precipitation?

a.

rain

b.

snow

c.

groundwater

d.

hail

 

 

____  13.   The nonliving parts of an ecosystem are called

a.

populations.

b.

organisms.

c.

biotic factors.

d.

abiotic factors.

 

 

____  14.   As populations grow

a.

The birth rate becomes lower than the death rate.

c.

The birth rate and death rate remain constant.

b.

The birth rate becomes higher than the death rate.

d.

the death rate becomes larger than the birth rate.

 

 

____  15.   Which term refers to an environmental factor that prevents a population from increasing?

a.

biotic factor

b.

abiotic factor

c.

immigration

d.

limiting factor

 

 

____  16.   The largest population that an environment can support is called its

a.

carrying capacity.

b.

limiting factor.

c.

birth rate.

d.

death rate.

 

 

____  17.   The behaviors and physical characteristics of species that allow them to live successfully in their environment are called

a.

habitats.

b.

limiting factors.

c.

biotic factors.

d.

adaptations.

 

 

____  18.   Consumers that eat both plants and animals are called

a.

omnivores.

b.

herbivores.

c.

carnivores.

d.

scavengers.

 

 

____  19.   Which of the following has recently been the most important source of environmental change on the earth?

a.

Human activity

c.

recycling

b.

Climate change

d.

national parks

 

 

____  20.   DNA and RNA are

a.

lipids.

b.

enzymes.

c.

amino acids.

d.

nucleic acids.

 

 

____  21.   All plants are

a.

autotrophs.

b.

unicellular.

c.

heterotrophs.

d.

prokaryotes.

 

 

____  22.   Autotrophs usually:

a.

Eat heterophs.

c.

thats a hard thing to say.

b.

decompose decaying organic matter.

d.

make their own food from inorganic compounds.

 

 

____  23.   Organisms that obtain their energy feeding off dead organisms are called:

a.

Decomposers.

c.

heterotrophs.

b.

Herbivores.

d.

autotrophs.

 

 

____  24.   decomposition is:

a.

the end of your english oral report

c.

the opposite of photosynthesis

b.

Water carbon and nitrogen going back to the atmosphere

d.

removal of harmful ozone

 

 

____  25.   The naming system used in modern classification is called......

a.

binomial nomenclature

c.

two name system

b.

Genus, species

d.

latin

 

 

____  26.   On the Galápagos Islands, Charles Darwin observed

a.

completely unrelated species on each of the islands.

b.

species exactly like those found in South America.

c.

somewhat similar species with traits that suited their particular environment.

d.

species completely unrelated to those found in South America.

 

 

____  27.   The species of tortoises that Darwin found on the Galápagos Islands displayed different structural adaptations. One of the adaptations that Darwin noted was the

a.

similarity in the tortoises’ embryos.

b.

difference in shell markings of the tortoises.

c.

variation in length of the tortoises’ necks.

d.

difference in number of eggs in each tortoise’s nest.

 

 

____  28.   Darwin began to formulate his concept of evolution by natural selection after

a.

experimentation with animals.

b.

observations of many species and their geographical locations.

c.

reading the writings of Wallace.

d.

agreeing with Lamarck about the driving force behind evolution.

 

 

____  29.   One scientist who attempted to explain how rock layers form and change over time was

a.

Thomas Malthus.

c.

Charles Darwin.

b.

James Hutton.

d.

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck.

 

 

____  30.   Lamarck proposed that organisms

a.

have an innate tendency toward complexity and perfection.

b.

have an innate tendency to become more simple as time passes.

c.

inherit all of the adaptations they display.

d.

belong to species that never change.

 

 

____  31.   Lamarck’s theory of evolution includes the concept that new organs in a species appear as a result of

a.

continual increases in population size.

b.

the actions of organisms as they use or fail to use body structures.

c.

an unchanging local environment.

d.

the natural variations already present within the population of organisms.

 

 

____  32.   The idea that only famine, disease, and war could prevent the endless growth of human populations was presented by

a.

Darwin.

c.

Malthus.

b.

Lamarck.

d.

Lyell.

 

 

____  33.   When Darwin returned from the voyage of the Beagle, he

a.

immediately published his ideas about evolution.

b.

realized his ideas about evolution were wrong.

c.

wrote about his ideas but waited many years to publish them.

d.

copied the evolutionary theory of Wallace.

 

 

____  34.   When lions prey on a herd of antelope, some antelope are killed and some escape. Which part of Darwin’s concept of natural selection might be used to describe this situation?

a.

acquired characteristics

c.

survival of the fittest

b.

reproductive isolation

d.

descent with modification

 

 

____  35.   According to Darwin’s theory of natural selection, the individuals that tend to survive are those that have

a.

characteristics their parents acquired by use and disuse.

b.

characteristics that plant and animal breeders value.

c.

the greatest number of offspring.

d.

variations best suited to the environment.

 

 

____  36.   Darwin’s concept of evolution was NOT influenced by

a.

the work of Lyell.

b.

knowledge of the structure of DNA.

c.

his collection of specimens.

d.

his trip on the H.M.S. Beagle.

 

 

____  37.   The number and location of bones of many fossil vertebrates are similar to those in living vertebrates. Most biologists would probably explain this fact on the basis of

a.

the needs of the organisms.

c.

the struggle for existence.

b.

a common ancestor.

d.

the inheritance of acquired traits.

 

 

____  38.   Darwin viewed the fossil record as

a.

evidence that Earth was thousands of years old.

b.

a record of evolution.

c.

interesting but unrelated to the evolution of modern species.

d.

evidence that traits are acquired through use or disuse.

 

 

____  39.   Darwin’s theory of evolution is based on the idea(s) of

a.

natural variation and natural selection.

b.

use and disuse.

c.

a tendency toward perfect, unchanging species.

d.

the transmission of acquired characteristics.

 

 

____  40.   Which concept is NOT included in the modern theory of evolution?

a.

descent with modification

b.

natural selection

c.

transmission of acquired characteristics

d.

competition among the members of a population

 

 

____  41.   Which of the following statements describes what all members of a population share?

a.

They are temporally isolated from one another.

b.

They are geographically isolated from one another.

c.

They are members of the same species.

d.

They have identical genes.

 

 

____  42.   Which statement about gene pools is typically true?

a.

They contain two or more alleles for each gene.

b.

They contain only dominant alleles.

c.

They belong to two or more interbreeding species.

d.

The relative frequencies of the alleles never change.

 

 

____  43.   In many kinds of organisms, most heritable differences are due to

a.

mutations during gamete formation.

b.

chemicals in the environment.

c.

gene shuffling during gamete formation.

d.

the effects of radiation.

 

 

____  44.   Gene shuffling includes the independent movement of chromosomes during meiosis as well as

a.

mutations from radiation.

b.

changes in the frequencies of alleles.

c.

crossing-over.

d.

mutations from chemicals.

 

 

____  45.   When individuals at only one end of a bell-shaped curve of phenotype frequencies have high fitness, the result is

a.

directional selection.

c.

disruptive selection.

b.

stabilizing selection.

d.

genetic drift.

 

 

____  46.   When individuals with an average form of a trait have the highest fitness, the result is

a.

not predictable.

c.

directional selection.

b.

disruptive selection.

d.

stabilizing selection.

 

 

____  47.   Genetic drift tends to occur in populations that

a.

are very large.

b.

are small.

c.

are formed from new species.

d.

have unchanging allele frequencies.

 

 

____  48.   The type of genetic drift that follows the colonization of a new habitat by a small group of individuals is called

a.

the Hardy-Weinberg principle.

c.

directional selection.

b.

the founder effect.

d.

stabilizing selection.

 

 

____  49.   The genetic equilibrium of a population can be disturbed by each of the following EXCEPT

a.

nonrandom mating.

b.

movement into and out of the population.

c.

a large population size.

d.

mutations.

 

 

____  50.   The allele frequencies of a population are more likely to remain unchanged if

a.

the population size is reduced.

b.

frequent movement into and out of the population occurs.

c.

all mating is random.

d.

the mutation rate increases.

 

 

____  51.   What situation might develop in a population having some plants whose flowers open at midday and other plants whose flowers open late in the day?

a.

behavioral isolation

c.

temporal isolation

b.

geographic isolation

d.

genetic drift

 

 

____  52.   The Galápagos finch species are an excellent example of

a.

speciation.

c.

stabilizing selection.

b.

genetic equilibrium.

d.

selection on single-gene traits.

 

 

Completion

Complete each sentence or statement.

 

          53.   Bacteria and fungi are known as ____________________ because they break down the remains of organisms.

 

          54.   The energy role of the first organism in a food chain is always a(n) ____________________.

 

          55.   All the biotic and abiotic factors in an area together make up a(n) ____________________.

 

          56.   Water, sunlight, and soil are ____________________ factors in an ecosystem.

 

          57.   Two abiotic factors that are needed for photosynthesis are sunlight and ____________________.

 

          58.   The diffusion of ____________________ molecules is called osmosis.

 

          59.   The gas produced during photosynthesis is ____________________.

 

          60.   Plants make their own food using energy that comes from the ____________________.

 

          61.   Almost all living things depend on the process of ____________________ to supply them with the energy they need.

 

          62.   Hutton and Lyell held similar views about Earth’s age. Both thought that Earth was ____________________ of years old.

 

          63.   Although his idea was incorrect, Lamarck was one of the first people to propose a scientific explanation for ____________________.

 

          64.   Darwin concluded that in similar environments around the world, _________________________ could produce similar structures in unrelated species.

 

          65.   According to Darwin’s theory of evolution, all species on Earth are united by _________________________.

 

          66.   Darwin proposed that natural selection takes place as individuals best suited to the ____________________ survive and reproduce.

 

          67.   When a population is NOT evolving, it is in a situation called _________________________.

 

Other

 

USING SCIENCE SKILLS

 

 

Figure 15–1

 

          68.   Interpreting Graphics What differences are apparent in the bodies of the three tortoise species shown in Figure 15-1?

 

          69.   Interpreting Graphics Which of the tortoises shown in Figure 15-1 has the longest neck?

 

          70.   Applying Concepts Can you tell from Figure 15-1 how closely the three tortoise species resemble the ancestral species? Why or why not?

 

          71.   Inferring Vegetation on Hood Island is sparse and sometimes hard to reach. How might the vegetation have affected the evolution of the Hood Island tortoise shown in Figure 15-1?

 

          72.   Forming Hypotheses Considering the body structures of the tortoises shown in Figure 15-1, which tortoises—a population from Pinta Island or a population from Isabela Island—might survive more successfully on Hood Island? Why?

 

USING SCIENCE SKILLS

 

 

Figure 16–1

 

          73.   Interpreting Graphics According to Graph A in Figure 16-1, what has occurred?

 

          74.   Interpreting Graphics According to Graph B in Figure 16-1, what has occurred?

 

          75.   Interpreting Graphics According to Graph C in Figure 16-1, what has occurred?

 

          76.   Inferring Which of the three graphs in Figure 16-1 might show a population of birds that specialize in different types of food? Explain.

 

          77.   Inferring What factor or condition might have led to the change shown in Graph A of Figure 16-1?


 

Evolution and Ecology Review 2012

Answer Section

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

            1.   ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

            2.   ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

            3.   ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

            4.   ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

            5.   ANS:  T                    PTS:   1

 

            6.   ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

            7.   ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

            8.   ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

            9.   ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

          10.   ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

          11.   ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

          12.   ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

          13.   ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

          14.   ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

          15.   ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

          16.   ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

          17.   ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

          18.   ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

          19.   ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

          20.   ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

          21.   ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

          22.   ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

          23.   ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

          24.   ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

          25.   ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

          26.   ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

          27.   ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

          28.   ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

          29.   ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

          30.   ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

          31.   ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

          32.   ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

          33.   ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

          34.   ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

          35.   ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

          36.   ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

          37.   ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

          38.   ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

          39.   ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

          40.   ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

          41.   ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

          42.   ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

          43.   ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

          44.   ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

          45.   ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

          46.   ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

 

          47.   ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

          48.   ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

 

          49.   ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

          50.   ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

          51.   ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

          52.   ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

COMPLETION

 

          53.   ANS:  decomposers

 

PTS:   1

 

          54.   ANS:  producer

 

PTS:   1

 

          55.   ANS:  ecosystem

 

PTS:   1

 

          56.   ANS: 

Abiotic

nonliving

 

PTS:   1

 

          57.   ANS:  water

 

PTS:   1

 

          58.   ANS:  water

 

PTS:   1

 

          59.   ANS:  oxygen

 

PTS:   1

 

          60.   ANS:  sun

 

PTS:   1

 

          61.   ANS:  photosynthesis

 

PTS:   1

 

          62.   ANS: 

many millions

millions

 

PTS:   1

 

          63.   ANS:  evolution

 

PTS:   1

 

          64.   ANS:  natural selection

 

PTS:   1

 

          65.   ANS:  common descent

 

PTS:   1

 

          66.   ANS:  environment

 

PTS:   1

 

          67.   ANS:  genetic equilibrium

 

PTS:   1

 

OTHER

 

          68.   ANS: 

The tortoises have necks of different length and shells that differ in overall shape and in the size of the opening for the neck.

 

PTS:   1

 

          69.   ANS: 

the Hood Island tortoise

 

PTS:   1

 

          70.   ANS: 

No, the diagram does not provide information on the ancestral species.

 

PTS:   1

 

          71.   ANS: 

Ancestral tortoises with long necks and shells that permit greater neck movement obtained food more easily, survived longer, and produced more offspring than other tortoises.

 

PTS:   1

 

          72.   ANS: 

The Pinta Island tortoises likely would survive more successfully because they appear to be more similar to the Hood Island tortoises.

 

PTS:   1

 

          73.   ANS: 

The average beak size of the birds represented in graph A has increased through directional selection. There are now no birds with very small beaks, and some birds with very large beaks have evolved.

 

PTS:   1

 

          74.   ANS: 

Stabilizing selection has occurred. There are more birds with a body mass of average size.

 

PTS:   1

 

          75.   ANS: 

Disruptive selection has occurred. There are more birds with smaller or larger beak sizes, and no birds having the average beak size.

 

PTS:   1

 

          76.   ANS: 

Graph C in Figure 16-1 shows a population with two very different beak sizes, which indicates that the birds could be eating different foods.

 

PTS:   1

 

          77.   ANS: 

Sample: A change in the birds’ environment, such as the introduction of a larger kind of food, could have caused the directional selection in favor of larger beaks.

 

 

PTS:   1