CLASS SET – DO NOT WRITE ON THIS PAPER

                                   

Affect of Mass on Flight Time

(helio lab #1)

 

 

In this lab you will use scientific methods to become familiar with paper helicopters, and will investigate one of the variables that affect flight time.  You will also be using the lab write-up form for the first time.  Be sure to follow all of the directions below.

 

1.       On page __, which is a right-hand page, fill in the title which is listed at the top of this paper on the first line, left aligned.  In the next line, write your first AND last name.  On the 3rd line, write the date(s) that data is collected. On the 4th line, write the first AND last names of all lab partners.

 

In this experiment, mass will be added (using paperclips) to a paper helicopter and the flight time will be measured.  This will lead to an investigation of whether adding mass changes flight time.

 

2. Skip one line.  Left align; write the heading: Purpose of Experiment: and underline it.  On the next line, write:  How does adding mass affect flight time? This experiment will be done using a paper helicopter and added mass to determine change in flight time.

 

  1. Skip a line.  Left align; write the heading: Hypothesis: and underline it. Write a hypothesis.  Don’t forget to use words from the question in writing the hypothesis. (A hypothesis is a testable (If) cause-(then) effect statement which answers the question.)  A properly written hypothesis contains a cause and effect.  The (If) cause is the independent variable (IV) and the (then) effect is the dependent variable (DV).  Locate the IV and DV in the hypothesis and circle them.

 

  1. Skip a line.  Left align; write the heading: Equipment: and underline it.  List all of the equipment and materials used to complete the experiment in columns.   Include quantity (how many of each item) and amounts (grams, meters, g/m, etc.)  

 

  1. Skip a line.  Left align; write the heading: Diagram: and underline it.  Here, draw what the experimental design looks like when data is first collected.   

 

  1. Skip a line.  Left align; write the heading: Procedures: and underline it.  Come back to this later – FOR THIS LAB ONLY!!!.  Future labs will require the procedures to be written FIRST.

 

In order for this to be a fair, unbiased, test, keep constant any other variables that could affect the flight time.  This way, any changes observed come from changing the mass and from nothing else.  These factors are called constants (or “controlled variables”) because their value will stay the same for all tests. 

 

Independent Variable (IV)

Dependent Variable (DV)

Constants (CV)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7. On page __, which is a left-hand page, create a 3 column, 6 row table like the one above.  For this lab, use these constants (CV):  a) helicopter made of paper; b) drop height = 200 cm; c) blade length = ____ mm.  (Be sure to measure the helicopter blade length.)  Write the IV, DV, and CVs in the correct place.  List any other CVs that the group comes up with.  List the safety symbols needed for this lab below this table.

 

Create a paper helicopter using the template provided.  Use scissors to cut on the solid lines, and then fold on the dotted lines.  Here’s how to do it:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 8.      The plain helicopter, without any added mass, will be the Control Group (CG) helicopter.  The control group is the natural state of the helicopter.   The helicopter with added paper clips will also be tested.  These tests will be called the Experimental Group (EG) or Study Group (SG).  Write group member names on the helicopter and set it aside for now.

 

 9. On page __, a left-hand page, record raw data AS IT IS COLLECTED.  Create a published (good) data table on page __, a right-hand page.  This second data table must be neat, easy to read, and clear to understand.  Use a ruler to draw the table and label it like this:

 

 

 

                                                  Affect of Mass on Flight Time

Trials

Flight in sec. with no added mass

Flight in sec. with ___ grams

Flight in sec. with ___ grams

Flight in sec. with ___ grams

Flight in sec. with ___ grams

Flight in sec. with ___ grams

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

MEAN

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

          Notice that the headings for the data columns are the IV with its unit of measure - paperclip mass.  The numbers in the data columns are the control and experimental group values.  These numbers are filled in when data is collected.  On the stopwatch, a time which looks like 3 45 is recorded as 3.45 sec.  For the last row, calculate the mean of the four flight times.  WRITE ON THE RAW DATA PAGE FIRST SO GOOD DT IS NEAT!

 

      10. Get a T.S. IN COMP BOOK NOW!    

 

      11. It’s almost time to fly.  Remember to have a fair test, be make sure to keep ALL of the CV’s constant.  Go back and look at them now.  Complete four trials for each of the masses listed.  Once flights are completed, calculate the means.  Now… GO FLY!!!!

 

     12. The data table should now be completely finished.  Construct a line graph on page __, a right-hand page, using the mass (IV) and mean flight time (DV) numbers from the data table.  The IV will always go on the X axis and the DV will always go on the Y axis.  Be sure to choose appropriate intervals for the data.  Use the same title as the lab and the data table for the graph.

 

13.  On page __, a right hand page, left align and write the heading: Error Analysis: and underline. This section will be addressed in future labs. 

 

14.   Skip a line and, left-align, write the heading: Restate the Purpose: and underline it.  COPY the HYPOTHESIS only from page 2 of the lab write up.

 

 

 

 

 

15.  Skip a line and, left align, write the heading: Summary of Results: and underline it. For the Summary of Results, copy these sentences, fill in the blanks with information from the data table and graph.

 

The hypothesis was supported by the outcome of the experiment, therefore the experiment is valid.  OR The hypothesis was not supported by the outcome of the experiment although the question was addressed, therefore the experiment is valid.  When mass is added, flight time (increased / decreased).  With 0 mass added, the mean flight time was ____ sec. as compared to ___ grams of mass added, the flight time was ___ sec.  After adding ___ g, the flight time decreased/increased to ____ sec.  With ___ g the flight time continued to decrease / increase to ____ sec.  The time with ___ g was _____ sec.  After ___ g, the time continued to decrease / increase to ____ sec.  

 

As mass increased, the mean flight time ____________ (increased, decreased, stayed the same).  This supports Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion, FxM = A. The force, pull of gravity at 9.8m/sec squared over a constant distance of 200 m remained the same.  The mass increased from ___ grams to ___ grams, which caused acceleration to (increase / decrease).  In further investigations, if force were increased on equivalent mass, it would be expected that acceleration would (increase / decrease).  The data (does / does not) show a pattern, therefore it (is / is not) reliable.

 

          16. One more piece to do.  Go back and write the procedures.  Procedures allow another scientist to repeat the experiment exactly.  The procedures need to include the steps necessary to collect the data, begin with a verb, be written and numbered sequentially, and contain NO pronouns except “it”. 

 

          17. Get a final stamp in comp book, page ___.    

 

 

4-30-13  Here are some examples of what is, and is not, acceptable for 2c. Each adaptation is clearly defined:

 

1)

 

NO - Night vision eyes to see in the dark.

 

YES - Night vision eyes to see in the dark. The Animal X hunts the nocturnal snake which is camouflaged against the rainforest canopy. Without the night vision, Animal X would not be able to spot its prey in the foliage.

2)

 

NO - Strong legs to run fast.

 

YES - Strong legs to run fast. Animal X is prey for a cheetah, which is very fast. Therefore, Animal X must be able to not only run fast, but jump over obstacles and turn quickly to avoid being caught.

3)

 

NO - Big ears to ear better.

 

YES - Big ears to ear better. Animal X Must be able to hear its predator, a large falcon, soaring overhead in search of food. The big ears also help it find its prey, small insects, as they rustle beneath the leaves.

 

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4-25-13 Your ecosystem is due tomorrow.  There is NO execptions for this.  If you were gone today for the school event, you are still responsible for turning the ecosystem in at the beginning of class tomorrow.  Please refer to the rubric - you have one, your parents have signed it and it is posted below.  Do not lose these 100 points!

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4-22-13 Rubric, planets and info for Year End Final Project

 

Designer Animal- Animal Adaptations Name_____________________ Per._______

I have read and understand the requirements and due     PLANET______________________

dates of the assignments.

Parent  Signature _______________________________   

Student Signature _______________________________  

 

Background Information: It is the future, the year 3000, and it is now possible for humans to build planets, and genetically engineer or create plants and animals to live on that planet.   You are one of the scientists working on the animals, and it is your job to design and create an animal which will be perfectly suited to its environment on this new planet.

 

Task:  You will be assigned one of the following environments of already created planets.  Create an animal which is going to be strong and resilient enough to survive in that environment.  You need to consider how this animal is going to stay warm or cool, what it is going to eat, how it is going to get its food and water, and how it is going to care for its young to make sure they survive.  Your animal must  FIT INTO the existing food chain- it CANNOT BE THE ULTIMATE PREDATOR( the one which can eat everything else and nothing can eat it) and it CANNOT BE THE PRIMARY PREY (all other animals eat it).  Your animal must be in the middle of the existing food chain.

 

REQUIREMENTS:

 

Part I: ECOSYSTEM (100 pts)    DUE Date____________________________________

One paper will be a detailed picture of your ecosystem.  Include EVERYTHING!

(water?  vegetation? sky? land? predators? other organisms? )  But, DO NOT add anything not listed in your planet!!!!

The picture must have:

·        NUMBERED LABELS- Please label the picture with numbers large enough that I can see them.  Each number must represent the biotic or abiotic parts of the ecosystem..

·        LIST OF THE PARTS- on the next page you must list each number and name each component (plants, organisms, water, etc.). Make sure your animal is in the picture.

·        COLOR- It must be in color. The more colorful the better.

·        ONLY FRONTS.- Any information behind the picture will receive no credit.

·        NO LINED PAPER ACCEPTED- only white computer paper allowed

 

Part II: THE ANIMAL (100 pts)    DUE Date____________________________

On ANOTHER piece of paper, draw a full-size picture of your genetically created animal.

Give your animal a name.  Put name under the picture and it must be centered in the frame of the paper.  You will be drawing

·        NUMBERED LABELS- label the picture with numbers on those parts of the animal that are unique to it such as the adaptations it has to survive in its environment.

·        LIST OF THE ADAPTATIONS- the next page must have the list of the adaptations and a description of each that makes it unique. You must have at least 5 adaptations.

·        COLOR- It must be in color

·        ROBOTICS/MECHANICS- The animal cannot have any robotic or machine parts.

·        ONLY FRONTS- Any information behind the drawing will receive no credit.

·        NO LINED PAPER ACCEPTED- only white computer paper allowed

 

 

Part III:  THE FOOD CHAIN AND FINAL QUESTIONS (200 pts)

                DUE  Date ________________________

 

On ANOTHER piece of paper list the organisms in the food chain (you must have at least 6 organisms in food chain including your creature) and where yours is in the chain and why. You cannot add animals that are not in the planet description except for yours.  Also you MUST COPY the questions below and answer the questions in complete sentences. DO NOT USE THE BACK OF THE PAPER.  ONLY FRONTS. You may use lined paper for the questions and answers.  Typed papers are preferred.

 

 

 

When designing your animal, you MUST   answer of the following questions.

 

            * 1. SIZE- HOW LARGE/SMALL IS IT? WHY IS ITS SIZE IMPORTANT?

            * 2. WHAT DOES IT EAT? (CONNECTIONS IN THE FOOD CHAIN)

            * 3. HOW WILL IT CATCH/GET FOOD AND WATER?

            * 4. HOW WILL IT KEEP WARM/COOL?

            * 5. WHERE WILL IT SHELTER?

            * 6. HOW MANY YOUNG DOES IT HAVE? HOW WILL IT CARE FOR ITS YOUNG?

            * 7. HOW WILL IT PROTECT/DEFEND ITSELF AND ITS YOUNG FROM ATTACKERS?

            * 8. EXPLAIN EACH KIND OF SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP IT BELONGS TO AND WHY:      It must be in a commensalistic, parasitic, mutualistic, predator/prey, and/or competitive relationship.

            * 9.  WHAT ADAPTATION(S) MAKE IT UNIQUE TO SURVIVE IN THE PLANET? WHY

                  ARE THESE ADAPTATIONS NECESSARY?

 

****Each answer must be at least 5(five) sentences long describing in detail the facts of its existence and its relationship with the ecosystem and organisms found in it.  Remember your answers have to explain how those specific conditions help it to survive in the planet.

Your answers need to reflect an understanding of genetics and evolution therefore your answers need to be thorough and complete with details.  THESE QUESTIONS WILL BE ASKED WHEN YOU DO YOUR PRESENTATION.

 

Congratulations! You have just created a new animal!

 

Part IV: THE PRESENTATION  (300 pts) DUE_____________________________

The final for the year will be when you present your creature to me and the class.  The order of your presentation will depend on when your planet is drawn.  Each person will be asked at least four out of the nine questions above.  Notes can be used to help the student explain and defend the adaptations that are instrumental to the animal’s survival.

 

 

THIS IS THE END OF THE YEAR FINAL.  SINCE IT IS AN ASSESSMENT THERE CANNOT BE RETAKES.  LATE WORK WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED.

 

 

 

Planet 1: The planet is dark and cold most of the time.  It is very mountainous.  It rains almost all day.  Because of the wet, dark conditions, the only plants that grow well are small mosses and fungi.  Animals on this planet include a type of mouse, a nocturnal hunting large cat, various fish and a variety of insects.

 

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Planet 2:  This planet is dry and hot.  Most of the planet is flat.  Water is found in underground streams but there is little water on the surface of the planet.  Most of the planet’s surface is covered in sand, although there are patches of dry grass.  When plants can get their roots down into the water table, they grow into tall trees with leaves at the top but not along the trunk.  Plants which are not connected to the water table are small and dry, but they are edible.  Animals on this planet include a species of birds which roost in the high trees, a sand-colored lizard, a type of rat and insects.

 

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Planet 3:  This planet is tropical: wet and hot.  Most of the planet is covered by rainforest.  The planet is very flat.  Water collects in large pools and lakes which have water in them all year ‘round.  A species of poisonous plant grows thickly on the ground.  The spines of this plant are poisonous and any animal which steps on one is sure to die.  The vegetation is plentiful, and includes leaves, fruits and nuts.  Animals include carnivorous snakes, varieties of insects, monkeys, fish and birds.

 

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Planet 4: This planet has a moderate climate.  It never gets very hot or very cold, but stays mild all year ‘round.  It rains for part of the year and the water form pools and lakes which dry up towards the end of the year and then the planet is very dry.  The planet is partly mountainous and partly flat.  Vege-tation includes tall trees with high leaves and fruit, and a smaller plant which bears nuts.  However, these nuts are inside hard shells which need to be removed before the nut can be eaten.  Animals include rats and mice which live underground, birds that nest in the tall trees, slow moving mammals which also live in the trees, a species of carnivorous nocturnal wolf and insects.

 

 

SCO 8 Designer Animal Assessment   Name____________________________

Grade Sheet   Planet ______________                 Per. ________  Date__________

 

I understand the requirements for the assignment.  I understand late assignments will not be accepted and will earn NO POINTS. I understand that different parts of the project are due at different dates.

Student Signature _________________________Date _______________

Parent Signature__________________________  Date________________

 

_________1.  Ecosystem (100)  DUE _________________________

________a. Planet sheet attached(5)

_______ b.  Does the ecosystem reasonably illustrate all the factors     necessary for life to exist? (35)

_______ c.  All 10 biotic and abiotic components properly labeled (20)

_______ d.  10 numbered components briefly described (20)

_______ e.   Color- Drawing is colorful/not messy(no smudges) (20)

 

_________2. The Animal (100)  DUE _______________________-

________a. animal name and centered (5)

________b. numbered labels on animal-at least 5 adaptations(10)

________c.  each adaptation is described clearly. (30)

________d. correct grammar, spelling, punctuation, not messy (25)

________e.  adaptations make sense given the specific planet (30)

 

________3.  The Food Chain and Final Questions(200) DUE_________________

________a.  list of organisms(at least 6), name of the organism and detailed     description of each (50)

________b. Is the grammar and writing clear enough to satisfy the

                       answers to the questions? Not messy or smudges(28) 

________d.  9 questions answered showing scientific fact .  (122)

 

_________4.  Presentation (300)  DUE______________________

                       To receive 300 pts. the presenter must stand in front of the class and discuss the planet, creature and its adaptations. The presenter will be prepared to answer and defend the organism’s ability to survive in the chosen planet. Included in the presentation must have one of the following:

·        large poster of the creature with all its adaptations labeled.  Must be in color.

·        powerpoint depicting a description of the ecosystem and the creature’s survival skills.

 

 

NO LINED PAPER!!!!!!! except for the questions

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4 - 17 - 12

Year end experiment for SC08 information

Due dates for Year End Experiment:

April 24 - experimental design

April 27 - all data collected - MUST BE RELIABLE

May 4 - complete lab write up done to be measured against the rubric

Rubric for SC08 Year End Experiment – Pendulum Periods

 

Your experiment must address the question, “What will cause a pendulum to swing for the longest period of time?” 

 

You must test 4 (four) independent variables – EACH will have a control and study group. 

 

This experiment will be worth MAJOR points.  You will be required to show your understanding of:

  • experimental design – clear, measurable hypothesis / accurate diagram / complete and sequential procedures
  • control of variables – any day that data is unreliable due to too many errors, that day will need to be repeated until variables are controlled and data is reliable
  • data organization – one correctly constructed data table for each CG/SG pair
  • data analysis – ALL data must be represented in this section, showing relative correlations and demonstrating relationships
  • conclusions based on what data supports – provide reasonable conclusion for what the data shows.

THIS LAB WILL NOT BE GRADED IF ANY PART IS MISSING!! 

 

PAGE

EXPECTATIONS

POINTS

page 1

IV

DV

variables to control

5

5

5

page 2

experimental design:

testable hypothesis

complete equipment

accurate diagram

complete and sequential procedures

 

5

5

5

5

pages 4

6

8

10

good data table for EACH of the 4 independent variables –CG/SG

 

5

5

5

5

pg 12

graph with data lines for ALL data

all parts

all data

 

5

5

p 14 (16 if needed)

Error Analysis

Restate the Purpose

Summary of Results

FIRST PARAGRAPH

validity

what DID happen in regards to the question/hypothesis

SUMMARIZE ALL data – organized by relationships

SECOND PARAGRAPH

provide a reasonable conclusion of the relationship between the IV and DV.  WHY did what happen, happen?  This section requires some research and THINKING!!!

reliability

 

15

5

 

 

5

5

100

 

100

 

 

5

 

                                       TOTAL POSSIBLE

300

 

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How Does Speed Caused by Ramp Angle Affect Force?

 

intro = title, name, date of data collection, partners

purpose of experiment = problem and statement

hypothesis = If IV does this, then DV will do this

equipment = quantities and amounts

diagram = neat pictures with labels

procedures = numbered, start with verbs, begin with gathering data

no pronouns

5

10

5

10

10

20

 

5

data table = title, data goes down, trials/IV/DV, labeled headings, no words, letters, abbreviations in data boxes, neat

30

graph = title, scales, labels in X + Y axes, numbers on lines, all data, appropriate key, neat

45

error analysis = when, what, affect on data, all errors, no pronouns

restate the purpose = problem only

summary of results

validity

what DID happen

compare last data to first data

justification of relationship between IV and DV

reliability

no pronouns

25

 

10

 

10

10

10

20

10

5

 total                                            240

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While I take attendance:  EDIT (like I will grade!) your neighbor's:, problem: IV and DV labeled / written as a question with question mark, hypothesis:measurable  / If...., then.....   /   SAME IV and DV as in problem,

mass of penny - you need mass in the equipment - so it should be:, 3 pennies - x grams each,

equipment - ONLY the materials you used and ALL the materials you used.  So do NOT list all the blocks in your tote - ONLY the blocks you used!!,

angle of ramp - in the diagram!!!!!!!!!!!,

DATA must go in order needed to ANSWER THE QUESTION / ADDRESS THE HYPOTHESIS!!  Increase??  Decrease???

Summary of Results: 
sent #1 - COPY. 
sent # 2 - state what DID happen in the lab as referenced in hypothesis. 
sent #3 - compare AVERAGE of last data to first - in reference to the hypothesis!!!
sent # 4 - ??? ALL DATA as an average.  So - compare last to first, then trial with mass of 1 penny, then mass of 2 pennies.

ANALYSIS - tell what happened in regard to hypothesis and why it happened.  Here is where you use THINKING and qualitative  DATA to explain the outcome and HOW the data supports the outcome.  INERTIA!!!! I should read about how this lab shows inertia!! Last sentence is about the reliability of the data!!

(((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((

Resting Bodies

 

intro

purpose

hypothesis

equipment

diagram

procedures

10

20

10

10

10

20

data table

20

graph

25

error analysis

restate purpose

summary of results

validity

compare 1st data to last

all data shown

analyze the results

reliability

20

10

100

10

10

20

50

10

                               TOTAL        255

 

 

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RUBRIC FOR CELL PROJECT:

200 POINTS TOTAL

10 POINTS PER COMPONENT X 17 COMPONENTS = 170

10 POINTS FOR PRESENTATION                                =   10

10 POINTS FOR NEATNESS                                         =   20

Each component must include the analogy of cell to comparative part in your system AND the relating factor - reason why they are similar.

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Cell Project demo

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How to set up your FIRST page for ANY lab:  All titles in red need to be the headings of each section and underlined!!!

name of the lab

your name

the date of the lab

names of your lab partners

~~~~~~~~~~~

Purpose of Experiement

(question and statement)

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Hypothesis

(IF..........then........)

~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Diagram

(draw the lab SET UP AND READY TO GATHER DATA - NOT PIECES AND PARTS)

~~~~~~~~~~~~

Procedures

(numbered, start with a VERB, start with how to gather data - NOT with how to set up the lab - your diagram tells us how to set up the lab)

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

I will be coming around to check that you have your CG data in the column next to "Day". Be ready to show me when I come to your table.

 

GRAPH: page 6

line graph (if you think a different graph will show your results better, see me AFTER I get the class going on independent work)

Where does IV and DV go on the graph???

How will you label the IV??????

 

page 8

ERROR ANALYSIS: remember - it's only an error IF it affects data!!!

 

RESTATE THE PURPOSE: just copy the QUESTION from page 2

 

SUMMARY OF RESULTS:

COPY the sentence that fits your outcome. Not all of you had valid experiments!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Many of you had a valid experiment but did NOT get what you hypothesized. NONE OF THESE SITUATIONS ARE A PROBLEM - THEY WILL NOT COST YOU POINTS AS LONG AS YOU WRITE ABOUT WHAT HAPPENED!!

 

Be sure sentence 2 tells what DID happen in regards to the hypothesis.

 

Sentence 3 - you will NOT compare last data to first for this experiment - you WILL compare CG to SG1 (first and then include SG2-4 if that applies)

 

ALL the quantitative data from the data table must be represented here!!!!!!

 

Then - ANALYSIS!!!! What is the DATA telling YOU in regards to ANSWERING THE QUESTION / ADDRESSING THE HYPOTHESIS? This is the most heavily weighted portion of lab write up this time. EXPLAIN what happened and WHY it occurred. What was learned? Shown?

 

Last sentence is about reliability.

 

You're done!!!

 

 

 

 

 

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Final Experiment Rubric

 

page 2

original problem/hypothesis on page 1

intro

problem

hypothesis

equipment

diagram

procedures

25

 

10

20

10

20

20

20

page 4

title

day / CG / SG1 / SG2 / etc

10

30

page 6

title

y axis

x axis

lines

key

10

20

20

20

20

page 8

error analysis

restate the purpose

summary of results

     sent 1 - validity

     sent 2

     data – CG/SG1, then SG2, 3

     all data

     analysis

     reliability

30

10

 

10

10

30

30

100

10

 

                                                               Total       485

 

 

 

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Rubric for Density (first page only)

title info

purpose of experiment

hypothesis

equipment (must have density of items)

diagram

procedures

10

20

10

20

20

20

                                                        TOTAL    100

 

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Rubric for Motion Graph

title

data lines colored coded to y-axis labels

labels

all 3 lines (p-t, d-t, v-t)

5

15

20

60

                                                          TOTAL  100

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Rubric 1st Semester Final Center Square Experiment

 

signed purpose/hypothesis

intro

purpose

hypothesis

equipment

diagram

procedures

25

10

20

10

10

20

20

data table

30

graph

25

error analysis

restate purpose

summary of results

validity

compare 1st data to last

all data shown

analyze the results

reliability

20

10

150

10

10

20

100

10

                                                                    TOTAL      350

 

Be VERY careful when setting up your experiment and gathering data.  Think about past labs and errors that caused bad data.  DO NOT repeat them!!  Keep your lab pristine!  Control all variables except the one that you purposefully manipulate – your INDEPENDENT VARIABLE!!

 

In the SUMMARY OF RESULTS the ANALYSIS is worth 100 points!!!!!  That is because I expect MORE.  I expect you to look deeper into the outcome and COMPLETELY talk about the data / experiment. 

So, if you are talking about Newton and focusing on a particular law, you KNOW that, in reality, all 3 laws are represented.  Talk about all of them.  I should read about GRAVITY (pulls all objects at 9.8m/s squared), FRICTION (I wonder what kind?), ACCELERATION (positive and negative), MASS (a measure of inertia), FORCE (hmmm, where did the force come from?), inertia (more mass = more inertia), ACTION / REACTION, BALANCED / UNBALANCED FORCES (which causes motion), etc!!!!

If you didn’t get what you hypothesized, make the statement of what the data is telling you.  Then, talk about the  “what and why”.  What would cause the results you hypothesized? Why did the IV not give the projected results?  ANALYZE!!   What happened? 

Think about the picture of the rocketship in our books that demonstrated Newton’s 3rd Law of action / reaction.  You also KNOW that an unbalanced force is pushing the rocket upwards.  You KNOW that the great mass of the rocket needs more force to move it.  You KNOW that since the mass is great, acceleration is slow.   You KNOW that when that rocket hits outerspace inertia will keep it going in a straight path at a constant rate unless it’s engines are fired up to provide the unbalanced force that will move it in a new direction.  So, you just don’t talk about action / reaction with FORCES AND MOTION because all motion (including sitting still) involves ALL 3 laws.

 

If you are doing an experiment on adaptations, then your analysis needs to discuss why that adaptation allows the organism to thrive AND why do the organisms that do not have that adaptation not survive/thrive.  What trait do the less-successful organisms have that cause them to not thrive? HOW did the successful organisms "get" the helpful trait? Will a new species develop eventually?  Survival of the fittess - how does this apply to the lab outcome?  OR maybe you are testing a behavioral cycle.  What is it?  Why did the organism use that behavior rather than one of the other cycles?

 

If you are testing genetics, then I would expect to read about the PROBABILITY of a particular trait occuring.  (ratios, percents) WHY did a trait show up more often?  Why did another trait not occur as often?  Did a trait not show up at all?  If so, why not? I should read about dominant, recessive, co-dominant, heterozygous, homozygous, probability, first, second and third generations, fertilization, inheritance, etc.

 

Hypothesis: If an object has a circumference of 10cm or less, then it will float in 500 mL of water. 

 

The hypothesis was not supported by the outcome of the experiment, although the question was addressed, therefore the experiment is valid.  The balls with a circumference of 10cm or less sank in 500mL of water consistently.  In the first trials with the 8cm ball the ball sank 12cm below the surface each try as compared to the ball with the circumference of 18cm which floated on top consistently.  The ball with the circumference of 10cm sank to the bottom of the container each try.  The data shows that the circumference of the ball does not affect the ability of an object to float.  The data follows a pattern therefore it is reliable.

 

 The hypothesis was not supported by the outcome of the experiment, although the question was addressed, therefore the experiment is valid.  The balls with a circumference of 10cm or less sank in 500mL of water consistently.  In the first trials the 8cm ball sank 12cm below the surface each try as compared to the ball with the circumference of 18cm which floated on top consistently.  The ball with the circumference of 10cm sank to the bottom of the container each try.  The data shows that the circumference of the ball does not affect the ability of an object to float. Instead, the density of the object as compared to the density of the liquid determines whether an object will float or sink.  All balls were tested in water with a density of 500g/cm cubed.  The density of each ball is as follows: 8cm = 551g/cm cubed, 10cm = 863g/cm cubed, 18cm = 391g/cm cubed.  The 10cm ball was more dense than the water, so it sank to the bottom.  The 18cm ball was less dense than the water, so it floated while the 8cm ball had a density slightly higher than water, so it sank below the surface but not to the bottom.  The data follows a pattern therefore it is reliable.

 

 

Hypothesis: If vinegar is added to baking soda then bubbles will occur. 

 

The hypothesis was supported by the outcome of the experiment therefore the experiment is valid.  When vinegar is added to baking soda bubbles occur.  In the first trial with water and baking soda the product bubbled at 5% of the surface for an average of less than 1 second as compared to the final trial when vinegar was added to the baking soda.  This product bubbled on 100% of the surface area for and average of 23 seconds.  The data shows that vinegar will cause baking soda to bubble.  The data follows a pattern therefore it is reliable.  

 

The hypothesis was supported by the outcome of the experiment therefore the experiment is valid.  When vinegar is added to baking soda bubbles occur.  In the first trial with water and baking soda the product bubbled at 5% of the surface for an average of less than 1 second as compared to the final trial when vinegar was added to the baking soda.  This product bubbled on 100% of the surface area for and average of 23 seconds.  The data shows that vinegar will cause baking soda to bubble.  The bubbles are a product of a chemical reaction that occurs when the 2 materials are combined creating carbonic acid.  The bubbles are a result of carbon dioxide decomposing and escaping from the remaining water.  The data follows a pattern therefore it is reliable.  

 

 

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Differentiated Assessment for Physical Science / Genetics / First Semester

 

You must do 4 different boxes for your semester final.  EVERYONE MUST DO THE CENTER SQUARE!  The other 3 squares are your choice, BUT, one must be about GENETICS, one on ADAPTATIONS, and one on FORCES AND MOTION.

Read a children's book that demonstrates 

Newton's  3 laws to the class and teach the concept S5C2

Read a children’s book that demonstrates adaptation  to the class and teach the concept.  S4C4  

Create a jingle for each of Newton’s 3 Laws and teach them to the class. S5C2

Make a file folder collage of Mendel, Darwin, and Newton. This must expalin the “Big What” that you are EXPECTED to know about each of them.  S2C1

Create a lab experiment. (teams of 2 – same hour)  Conduct the experiment IN CLASS.  Write the lab write up in your comp book – following format.  Be sure to follow all previous expectations including writing scientifically with no pronouns (except “it”),  clear instructions,  correct formatting – etc -  EVERYTHING YOU HAVE BEEN TAUGHT!!  S1C2

Create a video of an experiment you created and executed.  During taping, tell how you designed the experiment, your hypothesis, how you conducted the experiment including dependent and independent variables and your conclusion.  S1C2

Journal your activities for the week.  Create summary showing the correlation between your daily actions and Newton’s Laws of Motion.  Be sure to address all 3 Laws. S5C2

Dress up as one of our major scientists (Newton, Mendel or Darwin).  Get up in front of the class and tell your story, including life story, what you’ve done for science, and how our lives would be different without your discoveries.  S2C1

Write an essay about Genetics OR Adaptations OR Laws of Motion.  It must be 3 complete pages, single spaced, 12 font, with citations and cover page.   S4C2 or S4C4 or S5C2

 

NO PROJECT, GAME OR DISPLAY CAN BE LARGER THAN A STANDARD FILE FOLDER!!!!!!

 

 

 

Differentiated Assessment for Physical Science / Genetics / First Semester

You must do 4 different boxes for your semester final.  EVERYONE MUST DO THE CENTER SQUARE!  The other 3 squares are your choice, BUT, one must be about GENETICS, one on ADAPTATIONS, and one on FORCES AND MOTION.

RAFT – You are an apple (R).  Newton is your audience.  Write a speech (F) telling about the 3 laws of motion (T). S5C2

Create a file folder game, with instructions, to teach adaptations.   Be sure that you have all of the game pieces, cards and materials so that the game is ready to play.  S4C4

Video tape yourself skateboarding.  Then, do a voice-over telling about all 3 Newton’s Laws of Motion. S5C2

Create a file folder game, with instructions, to teach Newton’s 3 Laws of Motion

Be sure that you have all of the game pieces, cards and materials so that the game is ready to play. S5C2

Create a lab experiment. (teams of 2 – same hour)  Conduct the experiment IN CLASS.  Write the lab write up in your comp book – following format.  Be sure to follow all previous expectations including writing scientifically with no pronouns (except “it”),  clear instructions,  correct formatting – etc -  EVERYTHING YOU HAVE BEEN TAUGHT!!  S1C2

Put on a live demonstration showing the Scientific Method.  You will need to model and describe each step of the process as you go through your demonstration.  S1C2

Research and present to the class information on a job in science that is in the field of genetics, OR adaptations, (biology) OR forces and motion (physics).  S2C1

Video tape yourself playing baseball OR tennis OR ???.  Then do a voice-over telling about all 3 Newton’s Laws of Motion. S5C2

Create a file folder game, with instructions, to teach Genetics.  Be sure that you have all of the game pieces, cards and materials so that the game is ready to play. S4C2

You now have 16 choices BESIDES the middle square which EVERYONE needs to do!  Choose 3 of the 16.  Each of the 3 activities must be on a different concept.  (1 on genetics, 1 on adaptations, 1 on forces and motion) 

DUE DATES:  Middle square – Do experiment in class on MONDAY, DEC. 12th. (make sure you come to school that day with all of your needed materials!!) Final written report with all information is due WEDNESDAY, Dec. 14th. 

Performance activities will be done Dec. 16TH.  Sign up for your time!

ALL OTHER ACTIVITIES ARE DUE ON OR BEFORE THURSDAY, Dec. 15TH. 

 

NO WORK WILL BE ACCEPTED AFTER THURSDAY, DECEMBER 15TH!!

 

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

 

Rubric for games – adaptations / genetics / forces and motion

focus on content from YOUR notes, reading packets and labs

clear instructions

all game pieces

neat and attractive

TOTAL

60

20

10

10

100

 

Rubric for all children books – adaptations / forces and motion

provide clear examples of each of at least 3 animals and their adaptations or Newton’s 3 laws (which ever is your topic)

proficiently present and explain to the class

TOTAL

60

 

40

 

100

 

Rubric for all videos – forces and motion / experiment

includes each of Newton’s 3 laws with examples and explanations or each step of the scientific method in sequence (which ever is your topic)

TOTAL

100

 

 

100

 

Rubric for RAFT / Journal

each of Newton’s 3 laws are clearly represented and explained

written product is neatly written and organized

TOTAL

80

20

 

100

 

Rubric for essay – forces and motion  / adaptations

NO plagiarized work

thorough discussion of the chosen topic in 3 pages / single spaced /  12 pt font New Times

5 cited sources

Neat, organized

TOTAL

40

40

5

10

5

100

 

Rubric for scientist collage poster

content of poster focuses on information from YOUR reading packets, notes and class discussions – the BIG WHAT you are expected to know about these 3 guys.

Newton

Mendel

Darwin

Neat

TOTAL

 

 

 

30

30

30

10

 

100

 

Rubric for jingle

each of Newton’s 3 laws represented

teach to class

TOTAL

60

40

100

Rubric for dress up as a scientist

present to class what is important for an 8th grade student to know that YOU are responsible for - cover the BIG WHAT – (your reading packets, class discussions)

how our lives would be different if you hadn’t discovered what you did

TOTAL

50

 

 

50

 

 

100

 

Rubric for live demonstration of scientific method

perform a short experiment in front of class, from creation of problem through data organization

discuss analysis and errors

explain each step of the process as you go

TOTAL

30

 

40

30

100

 

Rubric of research on a job in genetics, biology or physics

education required

pay range

job availability

job description

TOTAL

25

25

25

25

100

 

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

VALIDITY - EXPERIMENTS ARE VALID - OR NOT VALID!! 

It is valid IF you answer the problem

It is NOT valid if you do NOT answer the problem. 

REMEMBER - YOU DO NOT NEED TO GET THE ANSWER YOU THOUGHT YOU WOULD!

                        YOU JUST NEED AN ANSWER!!

 

 

The hypothesis was supported by the outcome of this experiment, therefore the experiment is valid.  Changes in environmental conditions will effect the survival rate of certain species.  In the last generation there were a total of 3 fish, 0 green fish, 2 orange fish and 1 red fish as compared to the first generation with 9 green fish, 1 yellow fish, and two red fish.  Generation 2 and 3 green fish dominated with only 1 orange and 1 red fish in generation 2 and 2 orange fish and 1 yellow fish in generation 3.  Generation 4 had 8 fish total, no yellow fish, 2 red fish and 1 orange fish.  yada, yada, yada............................. In the first environment green fish thrived while yellow fish continued to die out due to predation.  The yellow fish were not camouflaged in the first environment, therefore they were easier prey than green, orange or red.  After the environmental change, the green fish were more vulnerable to predation and they were quickly eaten.  Only the orange and red fish were able to survive in both environments.  The data is reliable because it is consistent and follows a pattern.  OR The data is not reliable because it is not consistent and does not follow a pattern.  

 

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AGAINST:

What if you knew that many people feel genetically modifying organisms goes against Nature?  Many opponents of the genetic revolution - whether it involves sequencing the human genome, owning genetic material, or devising GM crops - pronounce that fiddling with the genetic makeup of plants and animals is unnatural.  Nature takes million of years to effect genetic change.  What right do we have to make changes overnight, as it were?  Nature also does not mix apples and oranges, much less flounder and strawberries.  (Scientists placed an antifreeze gene from the fish into the fruit in a failed attempt to help strawberries withstand frost.)  In short, do we have the wisdom  to substitute human for natural selection?  To play God?  Many argue that we do not, and that such acts are immoral.  For some, GM technology flies in the face of cherished principles about the relationship between humanity and nature.  If you are vegetarian, how would you feel if you learned that a vegatable you just ate bore an animal gene?  For others, such pursuits offend deeply held religious beliefs.  If you are observing kosher dietary laws, how would you feel knowing the tomato you just enjoyed in your salad carried a pig gene?  For some people, genetic manipulation is nothing short of sacreligious.  Such detractors are horrifed by the thought that the dozens of GM crops so far approved for use in the US and elsewhere are just the vangard of an army of GM flora about to appear.  In coming years, they say, we will see such oxymoronic man-made natural creations as GM trees  and GM ornamental plants.  Even now, Monsanto is develping new varieties of GM grass that will give homeowners the chance to choose the color of their front lawns.  "If Nature has spent millions of years building a structure with natural boundaries, it must be there for a purpose.  It is there to guide the evolution of life and to manitain its integrity.  Using genetic engineering in agriculture is like trying to fix something that has nothing wrong with it in the first place."  Dr. Michael Antoniou, Senior Lecturer in Molecular Genetics, GKT Medical School, Guy's Hospital, London, UK [19]  "For centuries we have purchased food from people we trusted.  The reliable qualities and properties of food have allowed it to play a role in rituals and religious practices.  Altering food may deprive believers of the assurance that food is pure or kosher.  Fear of food's content can alter one's sense of well-being."  Dr. Paul R. Billings, a director os the Council for Responsible Genetics [20]

 

FOR:

What if you knew that scientists submit that genetically modifying plants is completely natural?  Genetic modification counldn't be more natural, geneticists say.  Plants (and animals) genetically modify themselves all the time.  That's the basis of evolution.  We've been genetically modifying plants (and animls) for millennia.   That's the basis of agriculture.  Our manipulation of a single mustard species has generated such diverse vegetable as broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cabbage.  Altogether, the wild ancestors of grapes, potatoes, and all of the fruits and vegetables you find today on grocery-store shelves are but pale shadows of their modern, highly modified decendants.  All have gone through countless generations of careful hybridization and genetic breeding to improve, yields, taste, size, texture and attributes.  Modern GM methods are simply more precise, scientists stress.  Whereas traditional plant breeding involves thousands of shared genes every time two planst are crossed, GM technology allows, if desired, for the exchange of a single gene between plants.  GM procedures are also much faster.  In months or years, molecular scientist can accomplish the same degree of alteration that might have taken Nature millions of years to achieve.  "Biotechnology's been around almost since the beginning of time.  It's cavemen saving seeds of a high-yielding plant.  It's Gregor Mendel, the father of genetics, cross-pollinating his garden peas.  It's a diabetic's insulin, and the enzymes in your yogurt..." Dan Glickman, Secretary, US Dept. of Ag, Mar. 13, 1997 [22]   "All plants, and all animals including humans, are genetically modified.  That is what evolution means.  They are genetically modified by natural selection of random mutations and recombinations.  Some, such as maize, wheat, cabbage, and roses, are additionally modified by domestic breeding.  And some are modified by engineered mutation or recombination.  Any of these three kinds of genetic modification can have desirable or undesirable consequences."  Prof. Richard Dawkins, author and expert on evolutionary genetics [23]  "We've been breeding hybrids of plants for decades.  Biotechnology is really not that much different."  Dr. Werner Arber, Nobel Prize winner and head of the International Council of Scientific Unions [24]

 

?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

 

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INERTIA BALANCE

title info

question

rest of purpose

hypothesis

equipment

diagram

procedures

10

10

10

10

20

20

50

data table

30

graph

60

error analysis

restate the purpose

summary of results

100

10

50

 

                                  TOTAL   380

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FIRST LAW MAGIC

title info

question

rest of purpose

hypothesis

equipment

diagram

procedures

10

10

10

10

20

20

50

data table

30

graph

60

error analysis

restate the purpose

summary of results

100

10

50

 

                                   TOTAL      380

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CHANGING MASS

title info

question

rest of purpose

hypothesis

equipment

diagram

procedures

10

10

10

10

20

20

50

data table

30

graph

60

error analysis

restate the purpose

summary of results

100

10

50

 

                                    TOTAL   380  

___________________________________________________

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Rolling Mass grading rubric

Item Points

page 28

Name info                     10                                                                                

Question / purpose       20

Hypothesis                     10

Equipment                      10

Diagram                          10

Procedures                     50

page 30 - data table(s)  10

page 32 - 4 graphs - 1 for each rolling object scatter plots  40

page 34

Error Anaylsis - WHAT the error is   50

                            EFFECT of that error on the data / outcome  50

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TOTAL

260

 

 

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Designer Animal - Animal Adaptations
 
This is a useful lesson for teaching animal adaptations. This lesson introduces students to, or extends students' knowledge on, the concept of adaptation in animals - the idea that certain animals have developed features which help them survive in their environment.

Lesson Format

Animals have physical features which make them well suited to their environment (survival of the fittest). This includes animals which are camouflaged to their habitat, features which allow animals to survive in their climate, and features which allow animals to get food and defend themselves. Physical features include:
          Elephant - trunk           Shark - sense of smell
          Giraffe - neck           Hunting dogs - ears
          Echidna - spines           Lion - color, claws
          Gecko - fake tail           Polar bear - coat, color, claws
          Kangaroo - hind legs           Skunk - smell
          Goat - surefootedness           Zebra - what happened there?
          Bright colors indicating poisonous           Sloth - can be man-made
Animals gain and adapt their physical features over millions of years, but our task today is going to cut down that time just a little - you are going to design an animal which is perfectly suited to its environment.


ENVIRONMENTS

1: This planet is dark and cold most of the time. It is very mountainous. It rains almost all day. Because of the wet, dark conditions, the only plants that grow well are small mosses and funguses. Animals on this planet include a type of mouse, a nocturnal hunting large cat, fish, and a variety of insects.

2: This planet is dry and hot. Most of the planet is flat. Water is found in underground streams but there is little water on the surface of the planet. Most of the planet's surface is covered in sand, although there are patches of dry grass. When plants can get their roots down into the water table, they grow into tall trees with leaves at the top but not along the trunk. Plants which are not connected to the water table are small and dry, but they are edible. Animals on this planet include insects, a species of birds which roost in the high trees, a sand-colored lizard and a type of rat.

3. This planet is tropical: wet and hot. Most of the planet is covered by rainforest. The planet is very flat. Water collects in large pools and lakes which have water in them all year 'round. A species of poisonous plant grows thickly on the ground. The spines of this plant are poisonous, and any animal which steps on one is sure to die. The vegetation is plentiful, and includes leaves, fruits and nuts. Animals include carnivorous snakes, varieties of insects, monkeys, fish and birds.

4. This planet has a moderate climate. It never gets very hot or very cold, but stays mild all year 'round. It rains for part of the year and the water forms pools and lakes which dry up towards the end of the year and then the planet is very dry. The planet is partly mountainous and partly flat. Vegetation includes tall trees with high leaves and fruit, and a smaller plant which bears nuts. However, these nuts are inside hard shells which need to be removed before the nut can be eaten. Animals include rats and mice which live underground, insects, birds that nest in the tall trees, slow moving mammals which also live in the trees and a species of carnivorous nocturnal wolf.

 


Designer Animal - Animal Adaptations


Background Information: It is the future, the year 3000, and it is now possible for humans to build planets, and genetically engineer or create plants and animals to live on that planet. You are one of the scientists working on the animals, and it is your job to design and create an animal which will be perfectly suited to its environment on this new planet.

Task: You will be assigned an environment of an already created planet.  Create an animal which is going to be strong and resilient enough to survive in that environment. You need to consider how this animal is going to stay warm or cool, what it is going to eat, how it is going to get its food and water, and how it is going to care for its young to make sure they survive. Your animal must FIT INTO the existing food chain - it cannot be the ultimate predator (the one which can eat everything else and nothing can eat it).

BEFORE beginning, sketch your animal on the back of the of paper so that you know what you will create.


 Draw a full-size picture of your genetically created animal on the front of the paper.  Be sure to include all criteria - SEE THE RUBRIC!!  Give your animal a name (Put name under the picture and centered in a frame) and congratulations! You've created a new animal!

 

  • Size – label height, length in metric
  • What does it eat? – be sure it exists in your environment!
  • How will it catch/get food and water? – adaptations!!
  • How will it keep warm/cool  adaptations!!
  • Where will it shelter? – adaptations?
  • How will it protect/defend itself from attackers? – adaptations!!
  • Offspring? How many? How does it provide for them?
  • At least 1 behavioral cycle - (migration, estivation, hybernation, dormancy)
  •  

    DAY 2 - Draw a picture of your ecosystem on one piece of paper.  Include EVERYTHING!  (water? vegetation? sky? land? PREDATORS? other organisms?)  But, DO NOT add anything not listed in your environment!!!  You will show your newly created animal in its environment with all other organisms.  You will also DRAW and LABEL any 2 organisms in your ecosytem engaged in each of the 3 symbiotic relations (mutualism, commensalism, and parisitism)  You must show all 3 relationships.  They must be labeled and clearly show / demonstrate / be labeled as to who is being helped, harmed, or not affected.

    On one/both pages, LABEL each of the criteria from the list.  

     

     

    Rubric for environment and organism

    ENVIRONMENT

    points

    draft on back

    mutualism - labled as described above

    commensalism - labeled as described above

    parisitism - labeled as described above

    colored (even if your environment is dark)

    neat

    20

    50

    50

    50

    25

    20

    ORGANISM

    points

    draft on back

    size labeled in metric

    name of organism bottom-centered

    food:

    how does it get it’s food?

    how does it get it’s water?

    protection:

    how does it protect itself from environmental stress?

    how does it protect itself from predators?

    what behavioral cycle does it use?

    reproduction:

    how many offspring does it have?

    how does it protect OR provide for it’s offspring?

    colored and neat

    20

    20

    10

     

    20

    20

     

    20

    20

    20

     

    10

    20

    20

     

     

                                                       TOTAL    415                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5

    ____________________________________________________________________

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    Experiment Write – Up Model

     

    The FIRST sentence of your conclusion will address the validity of your experiment!

     

    YOU HAVE 3 CHOICES.

    1. The hypothesis was supported by the outcome of this experiment, therefore the experiment is valid.
    2. The hypothesis was not supported by the outcome of this experiment although the question was addressed, therefore the experiment is valid.
    3. The hypothesis and question were not represented in the outcome of this experiment, therefore the experiment is not valid.

     

    The SECOND sentence will be:

     

    1) a re-statement of the hypothesis WITHOUT the IF…, then. – Use this option IF your hypothesis WAS supported.

    EXAMPLE:  If fertilizer causes better plant growth, then

                                   IV

    plants fed fertilizer will grow taller than non-fertilized plants.

                                                   DV

    ***Fertilizer causes plants to grow taller than non-fertilized

                 IV                                          DV

    plants. 

     

     

    OR

     

     

     

    2) re-word the hypothesis so it states what actually happened in the experiment – Use this option IF your hypothesis was NOT supported

    EXAMPLE: If fertilizer causes better plant growth, then

                                   IV

    plants fed fertilizer will grow taller than non-fertilized plants.

                                                   DV

    ***Non-fertilized plants grew at the same rate as plants fed

                                               DV

    fertilizer.

       IV

     

    The THIRD sentence will begin showing support of the outcome by using facts from the DATA TABLE and DAILY NOTES – starting with the LAST DATA COLLECTED.  It will show change or make acomparision between the control group and the group that was manipulated.

     

    EXAMPLE: The plants that received fertilizer grew 25cm in

                                                                        IV         DV

    6 weeks but the non-fertilized plants grew only 11 cm in 6

                                    CG                           DV

    weeks.

     

    I MUST “see” your data table when I read your conclusion!!!

     

    **For Fish Stick, compare green in first environment with green fish in second environment*****

    Now, go to your data table and daily notes.  RE-TRACE each measurement and observations!!  Give specific measurements, detailed observations.  Paragraph #1 will be lengthy.  Make comparisons, make your information clear.  End with a statement of reliability of your data.

     

    REMEMBER

    No pronouns

    Metric only – no Customary measurement

     

    ____________________________________________________________________

     

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    Fish Sticks

     

    Page number _____18_____

     

    Purpose:

    The purpose of the is experiment is to identify that change in environmental conditions can affect the survival of individuals and species.

    Hypothesis:

    Equipment:

    Diagram:

    Procedure: (There will be several steps.  THOROUGHLY describe the first steps, then for subsequent steps use “repeat steps x-y Z more times.”)

     

     

     

    FYI

      

    Each stick represents an ALLELE for fish skin color.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    • green (G) is dominant to all other color genes
    • red (R)  is recessive to green and co-dominant to yellow  
    • yellow (Y) is recessive to green and co-dominant to red`

     

    Create a table like this on page ___19__

    alleles

    genotype

     phenotype

    RR

     

     

    YY

     

     

    GG

     

     

    GY

     

     

    GR

     

     

    RY

     

     

     

     

     

    Each lab has 8 sticks of 3 different colors for a total of 24 sticks.

     

    Create a table like this on page __19_ 

    Genotype

    Phenotype

     

     

     

     

     

    FIRST generation of fish

    Create 12 offspring randomly from the alleles in the bag.  Line up each fish – DO NOT return fish to the bag - YET.   Record the data.

     

    Create a table like this on page __19_   

     

                          Genotype                                          Phenotype

    offspring

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    1

    2

    3

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Scenario I –

    The stream where the fish live is very green and lush with lots of vegetation and algae covering the streambed and banks.  The green fish are very well camouflaged from predators in this environment and the red and orange fish are fairly well camouflaged also.  However, none of the yellow fish survive or reproduce because predators can easily spot them in the green algae environment. 

     

    YELLOW FISH DO NOT SURVIVE: remove all yellow FISH from the FIRST generation.

    Place all remaining fish from the first generation back into the bag.

     

    Create 12 offspring for the SECOND generation

    record on table

    YELLOW FISH DO NOT SURVIVE: remove all yellow FISH from the SECOND generation.

    Place all remaining fish from the second generation back into the bag

     

    Create 12 offspring for the THIRD generation

    record on table

    YELLOW FISH DO NOT SURVIVE: remove all yellow FISH from the THIRD generation.

    Place all remaining fish from the third generation back into the bag

     

    Create 12 offspring for the FOURTH generation

    record on table

    DO NOT REMOVE THE YELLOW FISH FROM THE FOURTH GENERATION

     

    Create a table like this one on page ____19_____

    Environment

    generation

    green

    red

    orange

    yellow

    Green seaweed and algae.

    first

    second

    third

     

     

     

     

    Environmental disaster modifies ecosystem

     

    fourth

     

     

     

     

     

     

    STOP!!!!! An environmental disaster occurs.  Factory waste harmful to algae is dumped into the stream killing much of the algae very rapidly.  The remaining rocks and sand are good camouflage for the yellow, red and orange fish.  Now the green fish are easily spotted by predators and can’t survive or reproduce.

     

    GREEN FISH DO NOT SURVIVE: remove all green FISH from the FOURTH generation.

     

    Create 12 offspring for the FIFTH generation

    record on table

    GREEN FISH DO NOT SURVIVE: remove all green FISH from the FIFTH generation.

    record on table

     

    Page __24__

    Error Analysis

    Restate Purpose

    Address Hypothesis: THIS IS NEW!!  Here you will address VALIDITY and RELIABILITY

     

     

    Conclusion/Summary of Results: In the conclusion include numbers for EACH phenotype for EACH of the 5 generations.  

     

    %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

     

     

    S4C2PO1

    Cell Model

     

    • You may work in teams of 2 or 3
    • You may use any number of materials / methods to accomplish your project
    • It must be a eukaryotic cell
    • All cell parts must be represented
    • It is due, Friday, August 28th, at the first bell
    • Be prepared to explain your cell model

     

    Construction Ideas:

    Make a cake

    Use a shoe box

    Plaster of Paris model

    Make a mobile

    Cantaloupe

    Jell-O

    paper mache

    Be creative AND ecologically responsible!!

     

    FOR CELL PARTS:

     use yarn, candies, pipe cleaners, pasta, play dough, etc.