MA 08 Pre-Algebra Mathematical practices and modeling with mathematics are embedded into standards for pre-algebra. Instructional time and learning focuses on four critical areas: (1) Develop understanding of expressions and equations, including modeling an association in bivariate data with a linear equation, and solving linear equations and systems of linear equations; (2) Develop understanding of the concept of a function and use functions to describe quantitative relationships; (3) Analyzing two- and three-dimensional space and figures using distance, angle, similarity, congruence, and understanding and applying the Pythagorean Theorem: and (4) Develop understanding of irrational numbers.